Council of CHALCEDON (AD 451)

The Creed of Chalcedon

“Following the holy Fathers we teach with one voice that the Son [of God] and our Lord Jesus Christ is to be confessed as one and the same [Person], that he is perfect in Godhead and perfect in manhood, very God and very man, of a reasonable soul and [human] body consisting, consubstantial with the Father as touching his Godhead, and consubstantial with us as touching his manhood; made in all things like unto us, sin only excepted; begotten of his Father before the worlds according to his Godhead; but in these last days for us men and for our salvation born [into the world] of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God according to his manhood.

This one and the same Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son [of God] must be confessed to be [in two natures], unconfusedly, immutably, indivisibly, inseparably [united], and that without the distinction of natures being taken away by such union, but rather the peculiar property of each nature being preserved and being united in one Person and subsistence, not separated or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, as the Prophets of old time have spoken concerning him, and as the Lord Jesus Christ hath taught us, and as the Creed of the Fathers hath delivered to us.

These things, therefore, having been expressed by us with the greatest accuracy and attention, the holy Ecumenical Synod defines that no one shall be suffered to bring forward a different faith, nor to write, nor to put together, nor to excogitate, nor to teach it to others.  But such as dare either to put together another faith, or to bring forward or to teach or to deliver a different Creed to such as wish to be converted to the knowledge of the truth, from the Gentiles, or Jews or any heresy whatever, if they be Bishops or clerics let them be deposed, the Bishops from the Episcopate, and the clerics from the clergy; but if they be monks or laics: let them be anathematized.”

Coptic Orthodox Agreed Statement on Christology

“We believe that our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ, the Incarnate – Logos is perfect in His Divinity and perfect in His Humanity. He made His humanity One with His Divinity without Mixture, nor Mingling, nor Confusion. His Divinity was not separated from His Humanity even for a moment or twinkling of an eye. At the same time, we anathematize the Doctrines of both Nestorius and Eutyches.”

A Proposed Statement for Reconciliation to heal the Schism of 451

“Following the Holy Fathers, we confess one Christ who is fully God and fully human, with no confusion or division between his humanity and divinity. 

We accept the formula “One incarnate nature of God the Word” in its Orthodox understanding, as it was employed by the Holy Cyril as a safeguard against any suggestion that Christ is divided, or that his humanity and divinity constitute two distinct persons. We understand the “one incarnate nature” to refer to the inseparable unity in Christ of his complete humanity and complete divinity, and thus He was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, without any confusion between His humanity and divinity, and we reject any suggestion that, in the union, his humanity is swallowed up or abridged by the divine nature.

We likewise accept, in its Orthodox understanding, the formula describing Christ as “One person or hypostasis in two natures” and its corollaries, “with two energies and two wills.” We again reject any interpretation of this formula suggesting that the distinction between the natures constitutes a division of hypostases or persons. Will and energy are necessary properties of nature; we therefore understand that Christ, who has a complete divine nature and a complete human nature, must have both a human will and a divine will, and a human energy and a divine energy. But since His two natures have one hypostasis, we hold that it is one and the same person who wills and energises naturally in both natures, of which, and in which, and also which is Christ our Lord.

Finally, because the two natures are inseparably united by the one person of Christ, it is right to refer to his Mother Mary as the Theotokos.”